At the time when scientific work becomes more collective, in the presence of leaders and a high actuality of a research scientific schools have been arisen. Such schools were formed in Odessa in the 50s-80s by the efforts of professors D.P. Gokhshtein,V.S. Martynovskiy and Ya.Z. Kazavchinskiy — the coryphaeuses of thermodynamics. At the sources of these schools was professor S.D. Levenson — the first director of the Ukrainian Scientific-Research Institute of Refrigeration, who has introduced significant contribution to the development and improvement of the thermodynamic method of the study of the technical systems that realize the direct and inverse thermodynamic cycles. The content of the fundamental research in the field of thermal and refrigerating engineering, calculating and predicting the properties of substances, which were carried out in these scientific schools has been presented. On the basis of these schools spontaneously arose and continues to exist Odessa Thermodynamic School — a non-formal organization of scientists. They use wide and continuously improve method of the thermodynamic study and introdyce also in the practice a new approaches to the experimental study and reliable description of substances¢ properties.